One of the most common procedures encountered in any science laboratory is dilution, the process in which solvent is added to a solution to decrease the concentration of the solute. In dilution the amount of solute does not change.

Dilution is the process of decreasing the concentration of a solute in a solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent like adding more water to a solution. To dilute a solution means to add more solvent without the addition of more solute. The resulting solution is thoroughly mixed so as to ensure that all parts of the solution are identical.

The **Dilution Formula** can be used where there is only one solute present, if a reaction is taking place the problem must be approached as a stoichiometry problem.

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Solved problems based on dilution are given below. ### Solved Examples

**Question 1: **A chemist requires 1.5M hydrochloric acid, HCl for a series of reactions. The only solution available is 6.0M HCl. What volume of 6.0M HCl must be diluted to obtain 5.0L of 1.5M HCl?

** Solution: **

Initial concentration of HCl M_{i} = 6.0M

Final concentration of HCl M_{f} = 1.5M

Final volume of solution V_{f} = 5.0L

The unknown is the initial volume V_{i}.

Substitute the values in the equation and rearranging the equation we get

V_{i} = $\frac{1.5M \times 5.0L}{6.0M}$ = 1.3L

To obtain the desired quantity of diluted HCl, the chemist should begin with 1.3L of the concentrated solution and add enough water to bring the volume up to 5.0L.

**Question 2: **If 500mL of a 15% v/v solution of methyl salicylate in alcohol is diluted to 1500mL, what is the percentage strength v/v?

** Solution: **

Substitute the given values in the equation to get the unknown value.

$\frac{1500mL}{500mL}$ = $\frac{15\%}{x\%}$ = 5%.

Initial concentration of HCl M

Final concentration of HCl M

Final volume of solution V

The unknown is the initial volume V

Substitute the values in the equation and rearranging the equation we get

V

To obtain the desired quantity of diluted HCl, the chemist should begin with 1.3L of the concentrated solution and add enough water to bring the volume up to 5.0L.

Substitute the given values in the equation to get the unknown value.

$\frac{1500mL}{500mL}$ = $\frac{15\%}{x\%}$ = 5%.